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VESSELS. In the early days of Islam, there were four kinds of drinking-vessels forbidden to Muhammadans on account of their being used for wine, namely, kantam , a green vessel; dubba a large gourd hollowed out; naqir , a cup made from the hollowed root of a tree; muzaffat , a vessel covered with a kind of black pitch or the glutinous substance with which the bottom of boats are payed., (Mishkat, book i. ch. i. pt. I.) But, according to Muslim law, the vessels used by Christians and Jews, and oven by idolaters are lawful, but they must be free from the taste or smell of wine.

VIGIL. Arabic 'arafah . The only Muhammadan festival which has a vigil is the 'Idu '1-Azha. or "Feast of Sacrifice.' ['IDU 'L-AZAH.]

VISITING THE SICK. Arabic 'iyddah . An incumbent religious duty enjoined by Muhammad on his followers. The following traditions illustrate his teaching on the subject (Mishkat, book v. ch. i.): -

"When a Muslim visits a sick brother, he gathers the fruits of Paradise from the time be leaves his home until be returns."

"If a Muslim visit a sick person, and say seven times, I ask the Almighty God, who is Lord of the great throne, to give thee health, the prayer shall be granted, unless the appointed time of his death hath surely come." "Verily God will say at the Day of Resurrection, 'O sons of Adam! I was sick and ye did not visit me.' And the sons of Adam will say, 'O our Defender! how could we visit thee, for Thou art the Lord of the universe and art free from sickness?' And God will say, 'O men I did you not know that such a one of my servants was sick, and you did not visit him? Do you not know that had you visited that servant you would have met me there?"

'Ayshah says: "When any one of us was sick, the Prophet used to rub his hands upon the sick person's body, after which he would say, O Lord of man! take away this pain and give health; for Thou art the giver of health; theme is no health but thine, that health which leaveth no sickness."

"When any person complained of being out of order, or having a wound or sore, the Prophet would say, when passing his finger over the part affected. 'In the name of' God, the earth of our ground mixed with the spittle of our month; we have done this in order to restore the sick to health, by permission of our Lord,'"

VOWS. Arabic nazar , pl. nuzur. Heb. neder. They who fulfil their vows are amongst those who drink of the waters of Kafur in Paradise (Qur'an, Surah lxxvi. 7): and the non-performance of a vow is sin (Mishkat, book xiii. ch. xxii.). But the Prophet is related to have said, "Do not make a vow for it cannot alter fate; still it does extract something from the wealth of the stingy"

The aronement for a vow which has been not performed is the same as for an oath namely, the freeing of a slave, or clothing ten poor persons, or feeding ten persons, or three days fast. (Hidayah, Arabic ed.. vol. 1. p. 350.) [OATH.]

Hughes' Dictionary of Islam

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